Spinning Sphere of Molten Sodium

  visningar 2,035,402


2 år sedan

An experiment on how turbulent convection in Earth's core makes a magnetic field
Get a free audiobook with a free 30 day trial at www.audible.com/Veritasium or text Veritasium to 500-500
Huge thanks to Prof. Dan Lathrop and team: ve42.co/Lathrop
Companion video to explain Earth's magnetic fields in more detail:
Australians! I'm on my way. I'll be doing live shows in Perth, Sydney and Melbourne. Details and tickets here: ve42.co/tour
Find out more about the film Vitamania: ve42.co/VITA
Special thanks to Brady Haran and Periodic Videos for sodium vs water footage. Original clip is here:
Special thanks to Patreon supporters:
Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow, Stan Presolski
I learned a lot in making this video and the one on my second channel with Prof. Jon Arnou. I changed a lot of my preconceptions, specifically I thought:
1. That the Earth's magnetic field was a passive thing - it shouldn't need a continuous input of energy to maintain itself (that seemed reasonable to me because the magnetic field has been around for a long time and it seems mostly stable). But as it turns out, the Earth is a giant electromagnet, and so of course those currents dissipate their energy as they encounter resistance in the liquid metal through which they flow. So the energy to continuously create these currents comes from the kinetic energy of the liquid metal flows in the Earth's outer core.
2. If it's convection, I'm thinking hot things rising, cooler things falling. But apparently the main effect driving convection is the compositional differences at the boundary with the Earth's inner core. This is because of the differential freezing at the boundary. Things like iron freeze into the inner core, while elements like sulfur do not. Hence the pockets of lighter material which then rise outwards.
3. I didn't get why the fluid motion was necessary for the generation of the magnetic field. I mean if it's a conducting liquid, it can conduct currents whether it moves or not. But the key is that the liquid metal can 'trap' magnetic fields. I imagine this like how iron channels magnetic fields. Then once these fields are channeled, they can be pulled and stretched, making more magnetic field.
4. Fluids operate very differently in rotating frames of reference. This is something I didn't intuitively grasp. But, as fluids move from the inner core outwards, those particles are moving much more slowly in the direction of rotation than the matter that has been there for a long time, which means the convection currents get deflected and form helices.
Music by Kevin MacLeod incompetech.com Brandenburg Concerto No4

Ted Walker
Ted Walker 10 timmar sedan
Does the ocean play a part in the earths magnetic field???
Eduardo Garcia
Eduardo Garcia 3 dagar sedan
Modestly Catastrophic 😂😂😂😂😂😂😂😂😂
bolino 8 dagar sedan
Thank you so much for using metric units in your videos.
Deepak K
Deepak K 10 dagar sedan
This guy seems a lot confused about his own experiments
Xiroh 15 dagar sedan
The guy be like: modestly catastrophic and mostly full xDxD so does he mean bad and filled partially? xDxD
Freelife Tas
Freelife Tas 18 dagar sedan
This video was 2 years ago and our field was down 10%. Now it is 20% down
Sam Marks
Sam Marks 19 dagar sedan
Tried capturing the QR code at :45, but it doesn't work cause it's covered up :(
Christoph Rackwitz
Christoph Rackwitz 19 dagar sedan
4:16 I believe it's this Dinosaur Comic: qwantz.com/index.php?comic=2018 (comic2-2029.png) yes, I downloaded all the comics upto the publishing date of this video no, I didn't OCR them all (the text is only guessable in hindsight) yes, I eyeballed the video frame, built some positive/negative masks for the text blocks, and compared every picture for best similarity
Christoph Rackwitz
Christoph Rackwitz 19 dagar sedan
I hope there's an encore to this topic
Shanon Gwynne
Shanon Gwynne 20 dagar sedan
ok so this is good :) you need to get back to your roots bro ! compared to the new content it would seem you have dropped your standard from an engineering an exploration aspect no disrespect bro and I'd love to see a follow up on this and maybe touch on molten salt reactors for power generation if it's of interest to you at some point in the future.
S. Scott
S. Scott 20 dagar sedan
Additional references : 1. Molten Metal Magnet (January 30, 2007 | Phys. Rev. Focus 19, 3) : physics.aps.org/story/v19/st3 2. The Dynamo in the Cornfield (January 5, 2005) : www.nsf.gov/news/news_images.jsp?cntn_id=100699&org=NSF
The Vermifuge
The Vermifuge 21 dag sedan
George Dalton Bailanis
George Dalton Bailanis 21 dag sedan
Come to South Africa!!
James Perkins
James Perkins 22 dagar sedan
Replace the bearings, that sounds horrific!
j k
j k 22 dagar sedan
so if anyone is near this thing when accidents happens. they either explode or frozen to ice cube death.
Lee Blanche
Lee Blanche 24 dagar sedan
uranus farts every 17 hours
sed8me 26 dagar sedan
Gregory Byrne
Gregory Byrne 28 dagar sedan
Energy is neither created nor destroyed. On this planet. All energy comes from and or goes to the sun. Co2 & Covid are lie built on inconvenient truths. #covid Baby Boomer Bust #climateChange Milankovitch cycles Obliquity causing #GlobalWarming Precession will cause Global tsunami's again Eccentricity is the trigger. Closed co2 loop
Daniel Thomas
Daniel Thomas 29 dagar sedan
2:47 cryONics, guys. Stop misusing cryogenics, it's not. It's Cryonics.
Mátè Jóna
Mátè Jóna 29 dagar sedan
earts's magnetic field.exe has stopped working start the spinning sphere of molten sodium.exe to protect the humanity!
xivvx Månad sedan
'modestly catastrophic' is my new phrase
Kurtis the frog
Kurtis the frog Månad sedan
I feel like a scientist after watching this
Ferny b
Ferny b Månad sedan
6:02 Veritasium: "Why is it important to know when the magnetic field will change?" Professor: "So we can have a forecast for planning purposes." Me: "..... ok.... did i miss something?.... the heck..."
Respuncules bruh
Respuncules bruh Månad sedan
"Practicable" - pure mad scince guy 2020
Dax Yocham
Dax Yocham Månad sedan
0:15 this mans looking like a black Mesa scientist +100 RESPECT
Maas Bekooy
Maas Bekooy Månad sedan
Now I want to read the t-rex comic you see in 4:50
Android480 Månad sedan
That is the demeanor of a person who has self actualized. I hope I can work on something I love some day.
First Name Last Name
First Name Last Name Månad sedan
Don't tell the Sun that it's too hot for its magnetic field. Yeah the beginning of this video was kind of dumb
AURA X KIRA Månad sedan
Electro magnetic fields from earth buildings and natural magnets, counters earth its selfs magnetic field
Creed Månad sedan
Dr Kleiner?
ofsinope Månad sedan
You say therm-o-metry. I say ther-mom-etry. Let's call the whole thing off!
Lui.f.t Månad sedan
I just realized i live in the weak magnetic field part :P
Fedico7000 Månad sedan
Don't get too much sun.
Khrtt Artrahht
Khrtt Artrahht Månad sedan
It was incredibly disconcerting to see a 5-second dish soap commercial in the middle of this video... followed by a deodorant commercial. We are geeks here, we don't wash dishes, and fcol, we sure as hell never use deodorant!
Swag Dactyl
Swag Dactyl Månad sedan
Ever since I played Skyrim I wanted to know what a dynamo is. That explains so much and why you find them where you do
Razan49x Månad sedan
If 12.5 tons of liquid sodium means "modestly catastophic" then only the destuction of the entire univers can be considered catastrophic
Rothschild Månad sedan
Jared Graber
Jared Graber Månad sedan
Wait... the spiraling turbulent flows of liquid metal trap the magnetic field lines -field lines from what? How is the metal still magnetic when it losses its magnetize at those temperatures? It shouldn't be able to make a field on its own just spinning.
Swordless Mimetown
Swordless Mimetown Månad sedan
It would be interesting to see this happening in space.
Benni Nugroho
Benni Nugroho Månad sedan
This is conspiracy, says FE'er
Paul Dawson
Paul Dawson Månad sedan
Who's to say there isn't just a big magnet deep in the earth , not necessarily the core generating a magnetic field ? Then again I believe the earth was intelligently designed and purpose built to sustain life as we know it. Not a freak accident of a "big bang" !
HoboGrifter Månad sedan
Eh, ya never know. Both theories have good points. But they both cancel eachother out so you can't really trust either side.
Dylan McDowell
Dylan McDowell Månad sedan
Worlds largest bath *bomb*
Tom Zeman
Tom Zeman Månad sedan
Centrifugal force versus centripetal force which is greater upon the Earth the later of course!
astro42_ Månad sedan
Kinda doubt it would be predictable if it’s a turbulent system, you’d need crazy amounts of processing power
Sage Mercedes
Sage Mercedes Månad sedan
I think it’s possible to predict the Earth’s magnetic field, I just think it would take hundreds of years of observation
Ammotive Månad sedan
That is a bit of kit!
James Whitman
James Whitman Månad sedan
My crackpot theory is that the difference in temperature between the different metals acts like a thermocouple and generates an electric field between the inner and outer core. But maybe a scientist in the field could correct me.
arvi verona
arvi verona Månad sedan
I'm a bit worried after the chilling part.. water vapor will condense around and on the sodium.
hh yy
hh yy Månad sedan
silence me
silence me Månad sedan
Why don't we use something like this for energy consumption?
Mitchell Jack
Mitchell Jack Månad sedan
How sure are we of the contents of the earths core?
HoboGrifter Månad sedan
The way the magnetic field works and the density of the earth
James LaRoche
James LaRoche Månad sedan
@ 3:00 "...and everything just chills..." had me cracking up
Kbls Kables
Kbls Kables Månad sedan
the hope is that it is flipping and not dissipating as we do not have the ability to not die on other planets yet.
Mikehunt hunt
Mikehunt hunt Månad sedan
They made a giant soda nuke
Joe M
Joe M Månad sedan
3:03 Did anyone else notice the sphere in this video is spinning backward compared to how Earth really spins?
Dr_Outcast Månad sedan
0:01 OMG this scientist looks exactly like one of those Half Life Lambda scientists they almost look like they're making the "Resonance Cascade"
José Ribamar Lima Carneiro
José Ribamar Lima Carneiro Månad sedan
The pens in his pocket are in such a harmonic position. I am mesmerized.
Trump not leaving, LOL Liberals believe anything
Trump not leaving, LOL Liberals believe anything Månad sedan
Great Video until you push the Trevor Noah politics. Sad they have infiltrated your channel. Unsub...
Guten Månad sedan
You know they must be up to something when they spend millions of dollars for contraption like this.
James Steckel
James Steckel Månad sedan
fantastic information. thumbed down for Noah
John Hudert
John Hudert Månad sedan
With the Earth’s magnetic field decreasing - WILL THIS HURT IT OR HELP?!??!?
Carter Brown
Carter Brown Månad sedan
Put it on a space now you got a force field from solar winds
Dav3 Månad sedan
Trevor Noah can eat a steaming pile of sh1t
The Onslaught
The Onslaught Månad sedan
The sun ain’t a deadly lazer
janofb Månad sedan
I thought they fixed this in the movie "The Core"
TheseColorsDontRun Månad sedan
2020 isn’t over yet as of this post. I’m guessing we haven’t seen the last of this year’s disaster fest.
Devansh Dubey
Devansh Dubey Månad sedan
You are teaching high school level of physics?
Robert Cowling
Robert Cowling Månad sedan
Key to surviving the LAX to SYD flight? Lunesta and red wine! Don't laugh, it works.
Robert Cowling
Robert Cowling Månad sedan
So, people praying for the Great Asteroid just need to wait for the collapse. Yikes...
Kay r star
Kay r star 2 månader sedan
Modestly catastrophic
Enzo 2 månader sedan
Really cool lab and that guy is super smart. But, at the same time, he strikes me as the type of engineer who, after a "modestly catastrophic" failure, would scratch his head saying, "But the calculations said that wouldn't happen". In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice. In practice, there is.
molspagetti 2 månader sedan
Link on the specific dinosaur comic at 6:30?
Tom Space
Tom Space 2 månader sedan
svfrom.info/history/video/lpqoZKPFzpusp6I The ELEMENTS in six dimensions, arranged by volume periods of nuclide mass averages
Jason Waller
Jason Waller 2 månader sedan
Put water in the sphere while its spinning ;)
Pucktechnology 2 månader sedan
The poles have been moving at a rate faster then anywhere in recorded history.
Christina Drescher
Christina Drescher 2 månader sedan
Oooooo. Trevor Noah. No longer like the channel.
Kane 2 månader sedan
a disaster that's waiting to happen. i do hope there are no surrounding buildings, that they've got earth-ramparts as a shield surrounding the perimeter of the building...but probably not; the experimenters know they'll be killed first.
BIG BOOT 2 månader sedan
So the electrical current could be coming for the heating of 2 dissimilar metals. That's how a thermocouple works.
itznotmytube 2 månader sedan
Curious which Dinosaur Comics that is. Weird to not see it with the Batman overlay lol. Great interview also! Interesting stuff!
Roguedeath 2 månader sedan
Primitive experiment
No Username
No Username 2 månader sedan
Yo what if there was a flash flood
Knight 2 månader sedan
I'm glad someone is thinking about the earths state of health.
IzackN 3 månader sedan
friggin dinosaur comic taped to the experiment; wonder which one it was
thesoundofscience 3 månader sedan
Derek -- you mentioned how the inner and outer cores are way too hot for the Curie temperature ... (I have not looked into this) the 2nd order phase transition that is ferromagnetism is almost surely influenced by pressure at some level, i.e. there is some term in the energetics that would account for it -- presumably at 'normal' (
noideaofhowtocallme 3 månader sedan
Maaan, how do you get to such cool places? Please continue in the same way!
Aviruk Basak
Aviruk Basak 3 månader sedan
How is the law of energy conservation not violated by this idea?
Sam Gardner
Sam Gardner 3 månader sedan
Sorry guys, I'm from the aviation field of expertise but that looks like a damn good power generator to me. Sorry my ignorance but has anyone ever tried to build engines powered by the earth grid ? I can't seem to find anything, cheers web
spamlobster 3 månader sedan
08/2020 South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) keeps getting weaker and is also splitting into 2 lobes. "NASA Researchers Track Slowly Splitting 'Dent' in Earth’s Magnetic Field"
allyourcode 3 månader sedan
Did they try using mercury before going straight to bomb fuel?
The hOEP Project
The hOEP Project 3 månader sedan
thank you. #Solutions4EarthCatastropheCycle2048.
conlang know
conlang know 3 månader sedan
Astro Abaqus
Astro Abaqus 3 månader sedan
At 3:16 it says that the core cools thanks to radiation from the surface to the deep space, this tiny change in thermal flux allows then the generation of the vortex of material that induces indirectly the magnetic field. Now the only way the Earth can irradiate is on an infrared light wave. What happens if this cooling effect is limited by some kind of gas that avoid its reflection? It is possible that greenhouse gasses have a tiny effect on this? The professor says that this process is unstable, so maybe this is not a problem since unstable systems are prone to change rapidly...
Anders Buch Jeppesen
Anders Buch Jeppesen 3 månader sedan
3:40 there is a kids drawing of a sun inside the earth
mike kruijsdijk
mike kruijsdijk 3 månader sedan
Earth core tempeture 6000k? How they masure that?????? Or is it just a teory?
Stephen R
Stephen R 3 månader sedan
I'm making a t-shirt that says "modestly catastrophic"
Jae Andrews
Jae Andrews 3 månader sedan
Ok let’s be honest, this absurd, a very reaching hypothesis w no way to even get bases of support. It’s crazy what we say when we just don’t know
Lance Cash
Lance Cash 3 månader sedan
How are you going to put out an explosion🥳🤯
Lance Cash
Lance Cash 3 månader sedan
Yeah right
Celeste Casale
Celeste Casale 3 månader sedan
I fricken love the scientist. He reminds me of my uncles dad
Celeste Casale
Celeste Casale 3 månader sedan
iammrawesomesauce no he’s married into the family
iammrawesomesauce 3 månader sedan
So... your grandpa?
Kapil Meena
Kapil Meena 3 månader sedan
How many times did earth magnetic field changed in history of Earth???.
[Ω] Auto PS5_55 Christmas Edition
[Ω] Auto PS5_55 Christmas Edition 3 månader sedan
R i c a r d o г о в н ю к
R i c a r d o г о в н ю к 3 månader sedan
El mejor canal de ciencia
Why Gravity is NOT a Force
visningar 4,1mn
What If Earth got Kicked Out of the Solar System? Rogue Earth
Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell
visningar 3mn
Lil Nas X - HOLIDAY (Official Video)
visningar 50mn
Electromagnetic Levitation Quadcopter
visningar 3,5mn
This Toy Can Open Any Garage
visningar 2,1mn
The Futurama Theorem
visningar 762tn
Can Silence Actually Drive You Crazy?
Could We Prevent An Impact?
visningar 846tn
World's Lightest Solid!
visningar 24mn
The Infinite Pattern That Never Repeats
Is Glass a Liquid?
visningar 4,5mn
Thales's Theorem
visningar 2mn
Lil Nas X - HOLIDAY (Official Video)
visningar 50mn
Äter som Sveriges smartaste person under en dag
Delivery Apps Screw Over Everyone
Drew Gooden
visningar 1,4mn
The Champions: Season 4, Episode 4
B/R Football
visningar 786tn