3 Perplexing Physics Problems

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Why does shaken soda explode? Does ice melt first in fresh or salt water?
Thank you Squarespace for sponsoring this video. Go to squarespace.com to save 10% off your first purchase of a website or domain using code: VERITASIUM
This video features experiments that have been shown to me by science teachers over the years. Does ice melt fast in salt water or fresh water was an experiment introduced to me at the Utah Science Teachers' conference. The ring of metal over a chain demo came from a teachers event in Florida. The idea shaking a carbonated drink increases pressure came from an email.
Special thanks to Petr Lebedev for building the pressure gauge.
Links to literature are below:
Victims of the pop bottle, by Ted Willhoft. New Scientist, 21 August 1986 p.28
Carbonation speculation
The Physics Teacher 30, 173 (1992); doi.org/10.1119/1.2343501
Agitation solution
The Physics Teacher 30, 325 (1992); doi.org/10.1119/1.2343556
Filmed by Cristian Carretero, Jordan Schnabel, Jonny Hyman, and Raquel Nuno
Music from epidemicsound.com "Seaweed" "Quietly Tense" "Mind Shift" "Observations"

Alvaro Medrano
Alvaro Medrano 8 timmar sedan
But, the most important of all still lacks an answer... *How can the soda last longer without loosing gas and ending up like soda flavor syrup?*
Googly 19 timmar sedan
When are you doing this again?
Revel Carlberg West
Revel Carlberg West 23 timmar sedan
There in no poll
Destroyer 891750
Destroyer 891750 Dag sedan
Ice melts in fresh water first
Destroyer 891750
Destroyer 891750 2 dagar sedan
0:44 remain the same
TheScottGillies 3 dagar sedan
MadCompany 3 dagar sedan
Did anyone notice the fly on his finger?
Filip Klominek
Filip Klominek 3 dagar sedan
enes.7 3 dagar sedan
Great video for all ages. Thank you, V!
Mack Lui
Mack Lui 5 dagar sedan
H i
Falling Star
Falling Star 6 dagar sedan
I have a question but it's more of a thought experiment. If you can't determine what something is but definitely can determine what it's not, then one should be able to guess the right answer most of the time without even having expertise in the subject. Let's say a test has questions with 4 choice answers. You don't understand the question nor know the answer, but you do know 2 of the 4 answer options to be false, which gives you a 50/50 chance of "guessing" the right answer through process of elimination, opposed to the 25% chance normally. Obviously it gets trickier if there are more variables. Take Dark Matter for exanple, we know it's out there but don't know what it is, by extensive process of elimination one could narrow it down to 10 answers and even if you can't guess the right one, you know 1 of the 10 choices is the real deal. Kind of hard to explain but this keeps my brain noggin...
123abc 8 dagar sedan
hey, I tried that ring problem but even if I do as he does the ring keeps on falling why is this happening?
Caio Monteiro
Caio Monteiro 8 dagar sedan
The slo mo in 4:15 is the coolest ever made in this channel
johannes lidenberg
johannes lidenberg 9 dagar sedan
Here I was hoping they where connected...
tabbris 10 dagar sedan
Now thats the face of a man who enjoys his cola!
Luffy 10 dagar sedan
5:24 - 5:29 --- this fly is a legend
Tejusawini Teju
Tejusawini Teju 11 dagar sedan
So that's how David dobrik started his coca cola mentos prank.
Traee 11 dagar sedan
Imagine writing a paper that can be disproven by attaching a pressure gage to the bottle
Alp Bali
Alp Bali 11 dagar sedan
The rings slow mo sound is like transformens
Peggy French
Peggy French 13 dagar sedan
it doesn’t even look like it’s moving when he moves it with his hand
RAHUL R 13 dagar sedan
i think everyone noted that fly
K J 14 dagar sedan
The matrix is real
Harry 14 dagar sedan
Lets just ignore the fact that this man himself sounds like a robot.
jrbd oebd
jrbd oebd 15 dagar sedan
You can answer the poll here... SVfrom: removes polling feature from SVfrom Me: breh
Марат Карданов
Марат Карданов 16 dagar sedan
Veritasium - the magitian chanel #1
Dan Bronco
Dan Bronco 16 dagar sedan
What a poison Coca cola is...
Alec James
Alec James 16 dagar sedan
What's still peculiar to me about the bottle which is out of equilibrium is that it even feels tighter to the touch, if you squeeze it, when there are those nucleation sites present... Hmmmm! As if to fool the senses that there is indeed greater pressure within the bottle.
b antone
b antone 17 dagar sedan
“I hope you made your prediction and registered it in the pole up here” ...
Paul Anlauf
Paul Anlauf 17 dagar sedan
Question: You say the soda goes wild and explodes because of the "rough surface" on the mentos. Does that mean if you put a bunch of rough rocks with rough surfaces in the bottle it would have the exact same explosive effect???
Organic Bow
Organic Bow 17 dagar sedan
You have taught me more than school has ever(just a joke, sad that I have to say this). When I say this, I do not mean that I am terrible at school, but that it is way too easy for me.
Lee Tucker
Lee Tucker 17 dagar sedan
this guy knows all about rings. butt rings
kushal reddy
kushal reddy 18 dagar sedan
The only reason why paper straws make sodas more fizzer is because unlike plastics the paper straws have some minor gaps which are accumulated by air which create nuclear sight inside soda when we put paper straws in a slow form or a wet paper straw it will probably be like plastic straw.
kushal reddy
kushal reddy 18 dagar sedan
@Veritasiun.... I think I'm right?
hellokatyfac3 18 dagar sedan
Here's a question - if things are attracted to other things with mass, and more attracted to things with more mass, how come nobody is attracted to me even though I am very massive? T.T
v c
v c 18 dagar sedan
calcium in soda making foam
Cannen COLE
Cannen COLE 18 dagar sedan
what happens if you add mentos?
Lamonze Parker
Lamonze Parker 18 dagar sedan
Check New video Funny! svfrom.info/history/video/g7uTmLCal7OHptQ
Kaushiki _
Kaushiki _ 19 dagar sedan
6:26 use the same colour in both, because their can be something about their wavelengths😳
Carlos Romero
Carlos Romero 19 dagar sedan
I see a trend here, Veritasium loves to laugh with glee at anything involving carbonated drinks.
Ablert obchoďák
Ablert obchoďák 19 dagar sedan
5:22 lol the fly
Harry Nicholas
Harry Nicholas 19 dagar sedan
5:30 anyone else notice he has a fly tie the knot? :) oh, lots of people. how many of you noticed it didn't dial the seventh chevron before disappearing though? hah!
Sticko L
Sticko L 19 dagar sedan
Imagine giving your friend a sip of soda and he just goes "ahhh, non-equilibrium beverage"
Lamonze Parker
Lamonze Parker 18 dagar sedan
Thanks Derek, now every time I take my first sip of a soda of any kind i'm obliged to say, "Ahh, non-equilibrium beverage." Just like when people greet me with, "Hello there." It's all I can do not to say... well, you know.
Alone Gamerz
Alone Gamerz 20 dagar sedan
How many Indians are there here🇮🇳🇮🇳
NURD RAGE 20 dagar sedan
Salt absorbs heat
Skidoodles 20 dagar sedan
3:03 uhh the ice in the salt water melted first
tets mcalfy
tets mcalfy 21 dag sedan
Can we all take a moment to appreciate this fly flying through the ring in slo-mo? 5:26
eric garner
eric garner 21 dag sedan
i have a perplexing science problem: where do my socks go when i do the laundry?
Harry Nicholas
Harry Nicholas 19 dagar sedan
in search of biros
T Laird
T Laird 21 dag sedan
please label cups "A" "B" etc
Beloit911 22 dagar sedan
The dislikes are from flies who didn't get the ring trick.
1111sudhir 22 dagar sedan
there us no poll
Fire2skull 23 dagar sedan
Me: Why it is happening. He: I will answer when I will return. (got the reference?)
riketscience 23 dagar sedan
I have a question: When I occasionally get a small burn on let's say my finger, I use an ice cube to hold in place for as long as it takes for it to stop burning (sometimes requiring a few cubes in a row). I wonder what is the most effective of doing this, given that the cube melts and make a pool under your hand. In other words, what method would mean the ice cube still has its cooling powers without melting too fast. The contact on the skin makes it seemingly melt faster. I wonder if wrapping the ice cube in paper towel means it lasts longer because it is not in direct contact with the skin. Or whether salt would come in to the equation?... So anyway, you get the point. I'd love to know people's thoughts...
n 25 dagar sedan
Can you do that with beer please?
Lebiquo 25 dagar sedan
1&3 feels like cheating because we didnt get all the information at the start
kunairuto 26 dagar sedan
"Non-equilibrium beverage" made me crack up!
gouravaram rupesh
gouravaram rupesh 26 dagar sedan
No poll visible 'HERE'
Divyanshu Singh
Divyanshu Singh 27 dagar sedan
Where can I get that cool glass at 9:02 for my 'Non Equilibrium Beverage'
ojasvi butt
ojasvi butt 28 dagar sedan
where is the poll??????
MGMB 29 dagar sedan
I predicted that the pressure wouldn't change and I am so proud of myself
花だ吸い散ろ 29 dagar sedan
did anybody see the fly?
Problem Solver
Problem Solver 29 dagar sedan
Interesting, very informative I tell my children to watch your video and keep sharing but in my country women especially are not interested in this ,what should I do ?can I translate them in my language and make them easy to understand for them??
Esphyxia [Dubstep]
Esphyxia [Dubstep] 29 dagar sedan
Dave Galindez
Dave Galindez 29 dagar sedan
The part with the rings was directed by Zach Snyder
Scrufflord 29 dagar sedan
So that's why soda in paper cups taste fizzier than glass cups
Eli Peters
Eli Peters Månad sedan
Did you explain why salt helps melt ice on roads? - Not because it heats up the ice to become water but instead lowers the freezing point of water. This is why salt is added to ice to help make ice-cream as it too freezes at a lower temperature than water.
Maximillian Renga
Maximillian Renga Månad sedan
I said freshwater because I've never seen an iceberg in a lake
Bandichod Madabandichod
Bandichod Madabandichod Månad sedan
It will increase, decrease and remain the same
Brian Keegan
Brian Keegan Månad sedan
How come orange soda doesn't foam up like other sodas?
Christian Ichiro
Christian Ichiro Månad sedan
4:08 Am I watching a movie??
Katumba William George
Katumba William George Månad sedan
Prediction; increase or stay the same
trillest kev
trillest kev Månad sedan
so you're saying I should use plastic straws huh
Geoffrey Mandzuk
Geoffrey Mandzuk Månad sedan
....people have wasted tons of mentors dropping them in bottles of pop...I have done the same thing accidently, by dropping a small rough stone into a bottle of pop...
JH Wieder
JH Wieder Månad sedan
For the second problem, you could also show the density proof in frozen lakes. The ice on top is pure while the water underneath is more salty or has more mineral content than when the lake is not frozen.
mebeymer Månad sedan
If a paper straw releases more CO2 from solution does this make the soda more acidic by creating more carbonic acid?
LOLSflint Månad sedan
11:05 oh frick I knew it I've been doing that as a little kid for no good reason, simply bc a friend said it as a joke and we freaked out when it actually worked lol.
TakikaFamily Månad sedan
And I see again awesome detail when extrema close-ups and slow-mo..... Flying Something in 5:26, 10:43, 10:51
LOLSflint Månad sedan
4:27 gear and massive door sound effects from lotr
Guy TECH Månad sedan
I said the pressure won't change
Roko Sama
Roko Sama Månad sedan
About the 2nd problem: Couldn't you argue that with salt water the melting point is lower, so the water directly in contact to the cube can be cooled down to a lower temperature than the normal water. In both cases it won't freez cause of latent heat of phase changes, but so the first cube has a cooler layer of water around, than the other one?
Andrew Månad sedan
Now I understand why dunking a beer coaster in your beer reanimates it. :P
Jono Incorporated
Jono Incorporated Månad sedan
I completely expected the ice in saltwater to melt slower, you blew my mind after reminding me we melt snow with it.
Chencho Montoya
Chencho Montoya Månad sedan
There was no poll
Nicki&Heather Månad sedan
Paper has a more porous surface...little microscopic holes
Mark Yeaah
Mark Yeaah Månad sedan
4:35 Thanks finally I can sleep in peace
SuperSeagull12 Månad sedan
Dude that bottle is at 3 atmospheres it's already pressurized from sitting. It doesn't need any more pressure to shoot the soda out.
Hasham Malik
Hasham Malik Månad sedan
Hey so what about the opposite result? When I pour a beer in a glass the head forms... I can rapidly dissipate the head (which I dont like) by dunking the tip of my finger into the head. Try it...
Benjamin Neuhaus
Benjamin Neuhaus Månad sedan
Hate Paper Straws 😄👌
Mr Smith
Mr Smith Månad sedan
Just a tiny bit more understandable than curved time space!
VVhatIf _
VVhatIf _ Månad sedan
I mean, the bottle does get MUCH firmer when shaken up.... how are you telling me the pressure isn't going up? We must be using different sodas.
Seb Macca
Seb Macca Månad sedan
This was fun
Marko Golob
Marko Golob Månad sedan
The Dare Devil Fly on 5:27 is gold.
Stonks0 Månad sedan
Also as a teenager if drinking beer out of a glass bottle people would tap the top of your bottle fairly hard and if yours was fresh it would start overflowing and I never understood why but now it makes sense that the sudden force of air forces the air into the liquid causing more nucleas for the Co2 to escape - Well I think it makes sense now lol
Caleigh Fisher
Caleigh Fisher Månad sedan
@Veritasium can you refute this by experiment? svfrom.info/history/video/icWrrIOVvrKmjqI I suspect that refringance from the inside walls of the slits will create very similar pattern. Or won't, but.....
Dc Fans
Dc Fans Månad sedan
Fizzy coke + fizzy paper straw = Awesome Life
I was stumped by the ice problem. The explanation made sense, but doesn't a salt water and ice solution get colder than just a water and ice solution? 0 degrees Fahrenheit and 0 degrees Celsius respectively. Salt water has a much much lower freezing point so it would take much more, well, "less" thermal energy to freeze. Would the ice melting rates be different in a glass full to the top with ice instead of just a single cube is the main question I have.
bugoobiga Månad sedan
11:22 is it really the mentos' rough surface that causes that cola eruption? Could a chunk of ceramic or pumice then cause the same thing?
bugoobiga Månad sedan
that cola spray-loving fly is the real star of this sequence 5:24
Adrian Månad sedan
I was a kid when I correlated the bubbles to the blowing up of the carbonated drink... hm.
Stephen Yamber
Stephen Yamber Månad sedan
So why do plastic pop bottles feel firmer after being shaken? Is it all mental?
WackyWays Månad sedan
henk broam
henk broam Månad sedan
So if the Mentos acts as a nucleation site, can you just drop a stone that looks exactly like a mentor in the coke, for the same effect???
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